Wind farms, Wind parks and wind turbines

Wind farms, Wind parks and wind turbines

Wind farms, Wind parks and wind turbines

The question on alternative sources of energy is actual for a while. Major pollutants of the atmosphere in energy sector are heat and nuclear power plants. That`s why, the world environmental organizations and scientists insist on reducing of operations of heat and power plants. Instead of this, they offer to generate energy from water, sun and wind, namely to use renewable sources of energy.

The wind energy is one of the leading alternative sources of energy, because has many advantages, specifically:

  • is environmentally friendly, because wind turbines don’t emit of pollutant substances into atmosphere;
  • wind energy is inexhaustible source and free of charge, but installing of wind turbine must be financed;
  • a possibility to be installed in hard-to-reach areas;
  • autonomy of functioning;
  • Not required large-scale area for installing of wind turbines.

Among all these advantages, there are the following disadvantages of wind farm maintenance:

  • long payback period for installing of wind turbines;
  • wind is inexhaustible nature source for energy generating, but wind is characterized of an instability of wind flow, therefore, wind farm must be installed on areas where the average annual wind speed is over 3 m per a second;
  • wind turbines are a danger for birds and animals living underground;
  • noise and vibration pollution from wind turbines.

Wind farms or wind parks is a complex of wind turbines that consists of charge controller, rotor, voltage inverter and accumulator batteries.  The rotor consists of three blades, the length of which depends on the capture wind flow. Rotor converts incoming energy into mechanical energy of the turbine. The blades of wind turbine are covered with insulating material for lightning protection. There are two types of wind turbines: horizontal and vertical. The most popular in using are horizontal wind turbines because of their efficiency. The control of wind turbines is carried out at a distance through control unit: start/stop of wind turbine, analysis of the operation of each wind generator and the whole station, monitoring of meteorological indicators, and the preparation of a report of wind turbine effectiveness.

To determine the area for allocation of wind farm is important to consider the optimal meteorological conditions (wind power potential), soil stability for installing of the wind turbines and routes of bird migration. Accordingly, to the Act № 808 of Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine and the list of ecologically hazardous types of activities, the wind farm is ecologically safe object. Nevertheless, during an exploitation of wind turbines is observed noise and vibration pollution of surroundings. That`s why for safe exploitation of wind turbines is required to determine a sanitary-hygienic zone (SHZ) in accordance to the requirements of State Sanitary Rules 173-96. Moreover, overhead transmission lines is a source of electromagnetic rays, the levels of which are limited within of residential area. Determining of the sizes of sanitary-hygienic zone depends on the types of wind turbines, their quantity and land plot for placement of wind generator. To comprehensively analyze of the exploitation of wind farm is required to conduct environmental impact assessment (of projected wind farm accordingly to the article №3 of the law of Ukraine «On evaluation of impact on environment»). In case of credits and investments from international financial organizations is required the conduction of ESIA – Social and Environmental Impact Assessment.

Carrying out of environmental impact assessment (EIA) and design of project of sanitary-hygienic zone considering required measurements and calculations, is better to delegate to experienced specialists in the field of environmental protection and ecological permissible documentation. Our experts are able to provide a complex of services for exploitation of wind farm within the limits prescribed by environmental protection legislation. Besides, the competency of specialists of MCL, LLC is carrying out of Social and Environmental Impact Assessment. Choosing MCL, LLC, you get a reliable business partner in the field of ecology, management and law.